Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Extensive empathy description)
"Despite its linguistic roots in ancient Greek, the concept of empathy is of
recent intellectual heritage. Yet its history has been varied and colorful, a
fact that is also mirrored in the multiplicity of definitions associated with
the empathy concept in a number of different scientific and non-scientific
discourses. In its philosophical heyday at the turn of the 19th to
the 20th century, empathy had been hailed as the primary means for
gaining knowledge of other minds and as the method uniquely suited for the human
sciences, only to be almost entirely neglected philosophically for the rest of
the century. Only recently have philosophers become again interested in empathy
in light of the debate about our folk psychological mind reading capacities."
Theorists and their
Contrast with other phenomena
The development of empathy
Lack of empathy
Enjoyment of others'
Compassion & Empathy at
Greater Good Science Center Wiki
Annotated directory of Studies
(Extensive empathy description)
Many and extensive definitions. In other languages, sign language, etc. etc.
Dictionary of the History of Ideas (Extensive empathy description)
"Empathy is the idea that the vital properties which we experience in or
attribute to any person or object outside ourselves are the projections of our
own feelings and thoughts. The idea was first elaborated by Robert Vischer in
Das optische Formgefühl (1872) as a psychological theory of art which asserts
that because the dynamics of the formal relations in a work of art suggest
muscular and emotional attitudes in a viewing subject, that subject experiences
those feelings as qualities of the object. Aesthetic pleasure may thus be
explained as objectified self-enjoyment in which subject and object are fused."
Swedish Empathy Center (Many resources, bibliography, articles,
Empathy An Introduction to Empathy
"What is Empathy, Definition of Empathy and Sympathy, History of Empathy"
Re-examining empathy: a relational-feminist point of view.
"For thousands of years people have been aware of the concept of empathy. In
ancient Greece, philosophers expressed their understanding of "empathy" by the
word empatheria, which implies an active appreciation of another person's
feeling experience (Astin, 1967). In 1910, British psychologist Edward
Titchener translated the German word "Einfuhlung" into empathy, literally
meaning "to feel oneself into" (Bohart & Greenberg, 1997). In the 1950s,
American psychologist Carl Rogers highlighted the importance of empathy in his
client-centered approach to working with people. His description of empathy
was widely adopted by social workers, giving common voice to its meaning in
professional literature. According to Rogers (1951),"
Perspective Taking and Empathy
A course bibliography on empathy